sugar definition chemistry

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[10] Crystallized sugar was discovered by the time of the Imperial Guptas, around the 5th century CE. It can only be found in milk, including human breast milk, and in some dairy products. [45][46] Be warned. Monosaccharides may be further converted into structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and pectin for cell wall construction or into energy reserves in the form of storage polysaccharides such as starch or inulin.

Screened sugars are crystalline products separated according to the size of the grains.

Desjonquières, 1989, Anabasis Alexandri, translated by E.J. Would the hypothetical Exxon call be illegal? [42][43][44], Sugar also led to some industrialization of areas where sugar cane was grown. It can only be found in milk, including human breast milk, and in some dairy products. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. Table sugar , granulated sugar , or regular sugar , refers to sucrose , a disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose. They are used for decorative table sugars, for blending in dry mixes and in baking and confectionery. Honey and fruit are abundant natural sources of unbounded simple sugars.

[60], Lactose, maltose, and sucrose are all compound sugars, disaccharides, with the general formula C12H22O11.

Because sugars burn easily when exposed to flame, the handling of sugars risks dust explosion. After water is evaporated by boiling the syrup under a vacuum, the syrup is cooled and seeded with sugar crystals. Industry and the Manufacture of Scientific Controversy", Author's conflict of interest disclosure forms, "Financial conflicts of interest and reporting bias regarding the association between sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review of systematic reviews", "Studies Linked to Soda Industry Mask Health Risks", "Coca-Cola Funds Scientists Who Shift Blame for Obesity Away From Bad Diets", "Soda Companies Fund 96 Health Groups In the U.S.", "WHO Technical Report Series 916: Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases", "Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes: A meta-analysis", "Sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain in children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis", "Sugar rush or sugar crash?

[95] Because brown sugar contains 5–10% molasses reintroduced during processing, its value to some consumers is a richer flavor than white sugar. In the body, compound sugars are hydrolysed into simple sugars. Any of a large class of organic compounds consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, usually with twice as many hydrogen atoms as carbon or oxygen atoms. [111][112], A 2019 meta-analysis found that sugar consumption does not improve mood, but can lower alertness and increase fatigue within an hour of consumption. China established its first sugarcane plantations in the seventh century. There are many types of sugar. The white sugar that crystallizes can be separated in a centrifuge and dried, requiring no further refining. This evolution of taste and demand for sugar as an essential food ingredient resulted in major economic and social changes. [4] A great expansion in sugarcane production took place in the 18th century with the establishment of slave plantations in the Americas.

[1], The etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. [12] During the reign of Harsha (r. 606–647) in North India, Indian envoys in Tang China taught methods of cultivating sugarcane after Emperor Taizong of Tang (r. 626–649) made known his interest in sugar. Define Sugar (chemistry). n.

Deoxyribose has the formula C5H10O4 and ribose the formula C5H10O5.[58]. [19] Crusade chronicler William of Tyre, writing in the late 12th century, described sugar as "very necessary for the use and health of mankind".

Monosaccharides include mostly linear-chain molecules with three to seven carbon atoms that consist mostly of $\ce{-CH(OH){-}}$ and one $\ce{-C(O){-}}$ units terminated with hydrogen on chain ends. It is a biennial plant,[78] a cultivated variety of Beta vulgaris in the family Amaranthaceae, the tuberous root of which contains a high proportion of sucrose.

Removal of color is achieved by using either a granular activated carbon or an ion-exchange resin. ", "Labeling & Nutrition - Changes to the Nutrition Facts Label", "Engineering Resources – Bulk Density Chart", College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, The Silk Roads: A New History of the World, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sugar&oldid=983407964, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Granulated sugar (about 0.6 mm crystals), also known as table sugar or regular sugar, is used at the table, to sprinkle on foods and to sweeten hot drinks (coffee and tea), and in home baking to add sweetness and texture to baked products (cookies and cakes) and desserts (pudding and ice cream). [50][51][52][53][54] This led to the development and use of various artificial sweeteners. [8], There was a drastic change in the mid-15th century, when São Tomé, Madeira, and the Canary Islands were settled from Europe, and sugar grown there. [39][40][41] Millions of enslaved or indentured laborers were brought into the Caribbean and the Americas, Indian Ocean colonies, southeast Asia, Pacific Islands, and East Africa and Natal. In these closed-chain forms, the aldehyde or ketone group remains non-free, so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. [96], Sugar refiners and manufacturers of sugary foods and drinks have sought to influence medical research and public health recommendations,[97][98] with substantial and largely clandestine spending documented from the 1960s to 2016. In 2016, the combined world production of those two crops was about two billion tonnes. For example, in the 1790s Lieutenant J. Paterson, of the Bengal establishment, promoted to the British Government the idea that sugar cane could grow in British India, where it had started, with many advantages and at less expense than in the West Indies. [70][71], Due to rising demand, sugar production in general increased some 14% over the period 2009 to 2018. The average person consumes about 24 kilograms (53 lb) of sugar each year, or 33.1 kilograms (73 lb) in developed countries, equivalent to over 260 food calories per day. Thus the modern ethnic mix of many nations that have been settled in the last two centuries has been influenced by the demand for sugar. Starch, consisting of two different polymers of glucose, is a readily degradable form of chemical energy stored by cells, and can be converted to other types of energy. Early ones were in brown sugar, partly cast in molds, with the final touches carved. The risk of explosion is higher when the sugar has been milled to superfine texture, such as for use in chewing gum. Its varieties, synonyms and characteristics are defined in nighaṇṭus such as the Bhāvaprakāśa (1.6.23, group of sugarcanes).

[21][22] After this an "all-consuming passion for sugar ... swept through society" as it became far more easily available, though initially still very expensive. 100% DV is defined as 50 grams. But what I cannot figure out is this: if I proffer some random molecule at you, how do you determine whether it can be considered a "sugar" or not? Monosaccharides are also called "simple sugars", the most important being glucose. [6][7] One of the earliest historical references to sugarcane is in Chinese manuscripts dating to 8th century BCE, which state that the use of sugarcane originated in India.[8]. In the tradition of Indian medicine (āyurveda), the sugarcane is known by the name Ikṣu and the sugarcane juice is known as Phāṇita. [120][121], The World Health Organization recommends that both adults and children reduce the intake of free sugars to less than 10% of total energy intake, and suggests a reduction to below 5%. Humans can digest cellulose only to a very limited extent, though ruminants can do so with the help of symbiotic bacteria in their gut. The acyclic mono- and disaccharides contain either aldehyde groups or ketone groups. Deoxyribose has the formula C5H10O4 and ribose the formula C5H10O5.[58]. [22], Sugar was a luxury in Europe until the early 19th century, when it became more widely available, due to the rise of beet sugar in Prussia, and later in France under Napoleon. Sugar cubes were produced in the nineteenth century. Sugar became highly popular and by the 19th century, sugar came to be considered[by whom?] Global production of sugarcane in 2016 was 1.9 billion tonnes, with Brazil producing 41% of the world total and India 18% (table). They also have to be capable of forming an aldehyde or ketone carbonyl group. [82][83], The sugar may be transported in bulk to the country where it will be used and the refining process often takes place there. A meta-analysis of carbohydrate effects on mood", "Consumption of energy drinks by children and young people: a rapid review examining evidence of physical effects and consumer attitudes", "Effect on Caries of Restricting Sugars Intake: Systematic Review to Inform WHO Guidelines", National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine, Guideline. Some C8- and C9-molecules are also considered to be monosaccharides. Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting , soluble carbohydrates , many of which are used in food . Showing page 1.

They have five hydroxyl groups (−OH) and a carbonyl group (C=O) and are cyclic when dissolved in water.

[38] Demand drove, in part, the colonization of tropical islands and areas where labor-intensive sugarcane plantations and sugar manufacturing could be successful. Originally, people chewed raw sugarcane to extract its sweetness.

Refined sugar is purer (ICUMSA below 300) than raw sugar (ICUMSA over 1,500). [59] The 2008 Georgia sugar refinery explosion, which killed 14 people and injured 40, and destroyed most of the refinery, was caused by the ignition of sugar dust. [29] The cuttings were planted and the first sugar-cane harvest in Hispaniola took place in 1501. The resulting thin syrup is concentrated in a series of evaporators, after which further water is removed. After water is evaporated by boiling the syrup under a vacuum, the syrup is cooled and seeded with sugar crystals. Medieval style tactics vs high-positioned archers, Finding how crowded a given train connections is (by day of week, and by hour). (any of a group of) substances containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary, the webmaster's page for free fun content, Suganthi Devadason Marine Research Institute. It is a type of disaccharide made from the combination of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose.

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